These channels are unregulated, informal and almost entirely dependent on trust-based relationships. At the market, farmers meet with commission agents at traditional “gaddidar markets” or direct with downstream buyers at “farmers markets” (i.e. without gaddidars). Farmers could also meet with government agents during the operational years of the Agricultural Produce Marketing Committee (APMC); however, the act was repealed in Bihar in 2006 to deregulate marketing activities. Improving the supply of F&V to markets is generally considered to be an important first step in improving their consumption amongst populations with seasonal or perennial barriers to access (Hawkes and Ruel, 2008). Development practice has long experience with market systems “upgrades” that have the potential to improve supply and financial returns to specific value chain actors (Devaux et al., 2018; Fischer and Qaim, 2012). Although national F&V production has tripled since the 1990s, retail prices have not responded proportionately (Rahman, 2012).
If liquidity preferences decline during economic stability, the yield curve steepens as investors become more willing to invest in higher-yielding long-term bonds. Fiscal expenditures, when properly directed, are particularly effective in supporting growth and development in times of economic slack due to large multiplier effects of public spending. In most developing countries, actual output is still below potential output, implying persistent economic slack. In the presence of such spare capacities and economic slack, forex liquidity aggregation public investments do not crowd out private investment but can instead be a powerful tool to create jobs and reinvigorate growth. Public investment not only boosts short-term aggregate demand, but also stimulates capital formation, expanding productive capacities and lifting potential growth. In the current context of high uncertainties, strategic public investment will signal policy commitment and likely crowd in private investment, which will remain critical for mitigating the scarring effects of the pandemic crisis.
In the stock exchange market, liquidity can be assessed based on the number of orders in the order book and such parameters as trading volume and spread. The primary function of a gaddidar is to connect upstream sellers with downstream buyers in exchange for a commission, which generally ranges between 1–7% of the transaction value. Gaddidars may also then charge the buyer for fixing the transaction, with local traders charged the same as the farmer and traders from external markets charged up to double the local rate. In addition to on balance sheet exposures, liquidity gap report also shows off balance sheet exposures. It takes only minor shocks to the economic system for a non-funded off balance sheet item to convert into a funded on balance sheet exposure. The next chart plots the estimated price impact per $100 million in net order flow (defined as buyer-initiated trading volume less seller-initiated trading volume).
Establishing direct relationships with liquidity providers typically involves significant upfront costs and substantial capital requirements. Smaller brokers, in particular, may face barriers to accessing the best liquidity due to limited financial resources. Liquidity aggregation eliminates the need for brokers to establish individual connections with multiple liquidity providers, reducing costs and capital requirements.
Rather than being designed for statistical representativeness, the interviews aimed to map the range of actors and decision-making processes driving F&V between farm and fork, as well as narratives around how aggregation has introduced changes to the value chain. Whilst focussing on the participant’s specialist knowledge, the interview scripts retained flexible structures to allow any narratives of particularly interest to be followed. Informed consent was sought before each interview, with additional consent sought before audio recordings. Interviews lasted 45–60 min and were recorded in Hindi before a research assistant from Digital Green assisted with English translation. The first choice is the assumption that while the amount is overdue, it will be paid within the next thirty days.
But with current accounts and overdraft, running finance and working capital facilities, account rollover is quite common. Hence the need for an assumptions override for rollovers and contractual maturities for current accounts, saving and term deposits as well as for overdraft, running finance and working capital lines. The assumption option should allow for a distribution of maturity behavior for an existing product across multiple maturity buckets. Serenity connects to other exchanges and aggregates their orders for its own depth of market, which are executed in case Serenity’s internal orders can’t be closed at near-market prices. While honest traders have to work under the keen eye of regulators, while the biggest trades are made in the black market. For example, such brokers as Circle and Cumberland give access to the market only to traders with orders starting at $250,000.
Through liquidity aggregation, businesses can benefit from competitive pricing as providers compete to offer the best bid/ask spreads. This translates into better execution prices for trades, reducing trading costs and boosting overall profitability. For B2B entities, securing favorable trading conditions and optimizing order execution can significantly impact profitability and competitiveness. To address these challenges, the concept of liquidity aggregation has emerged as a game-changer.
Most pieces devoted to liquidity aggregation are targeted either at finance professionals and are written in a complex industry vernacular; or at potential buyers of liquidity and are focused on selling rather than informing. The suitable solution to launch smart liquidity aggregation is Brokeree’s Liquidity Bridge. With its technology and integration capabilities, the Bridge offers brokers a robust and efficient tool to access liquidity from multiple providers and aggregate it into a unified https://www.xcritical.in/ pool. This software ensures efficient handling of large volumes of data, a depth of market feature, and real-time market information, guaranteeing smooth and reliable trade execution for brokers and their clients. During uncertain market conditions, when liquidity may be scarce, having several liquidity providers mitigates the risk of exposure. Brokers can rely on the diversity of sources to access sufficient liquidity, reducing the chances of experiencing slippage or delayed executions.
- Average growth is projected to slow from an estimated 6.6 per cent in in 2022 to 3.5 per cent in 2023 amid worsening external conditions (figure 3).
- A FX liquidity aggregator benefits brokers nowadays since LAs support various combinations of order types, currencies, and tiered pricing.
- Rather than hailing a bus or an autorickshaw at the roadside, farmers can reserve market transport by contacting their aggregator one day in advance.
Price impact for the two-year note rose sharply in March 2023 to a level about twice as high as at its March 2020 peak, and then within a month or so returned to levels comparable to those of the preceding year. This is due in large part to liquidity providers grappling with the reality of their clients failing to utilize their respective liquidity optimized ways. The presence of these facilities should create confidence that liquidity at a backstop rate will be available in overnight money markets as needed, potentially limiting the demand for precautionary liquidity and the run-like dynamics that can occur. Equally important, they will be available on a standing basis to meet immediate liquidity needs should they arise.
During financial crises, the heightened preference for liquidity can exacerbate market conditions. For instance, a sudden rush for liquidity can lead to fire sales of assets, plummeting asset prices, and a tightening of financial conditions. By understanding the principles of liquidity preference, policymakers, and financial institutions can better anticipate and mitigate the adverse effects of financial crises and devise strategies to enhance financial stability. For instance, evidence from the potato value chain in Bihar suggests that cold storage can dampen short-term price variations (Minten et al., 2011).
Conversely, aligning aggregation with the needs of access-vulnerable consumers risks weakening these relationships and trading-off traditional value chain outcomes, such as market participation, revenues and efficiencies. Therefore, establishing the feedbacks, interlinkages and governance structures across the holistic value chain is key to identifying the synergies that work towards elusive win-win futures (Klapwijk et al., 2014). Even if cold storage facilities are to be located geographically close to rural markets, poor road qualities can produce “economic distances” that make supplying local markets unattractive (Reardon, 2015). Although the length of roads in Bihar doubled between 2009 and 2018, only half of roads in and out of villages are paved (GoB, 2019). Consequently, rural roads may be impassable for farmers dependent on bicycles or autorickshaws, whilst traders and aggregators may have to take costly precautions to avoid damaging supplies (i.e. additional packaging or longer routes).
All three distance traders interviewed noted that the growth in production and supply over the past 5 years has been offset by an increasing number of traders. In parallel, the interviewed farmers perceived more competitive pricing and supply options, with the increasing export of F&V by out-of-state traders potentially undercutting the availability and affordability of horticultural products in access-vulnerable local markets. Whilst the horticultural value chain takes various local forms, F&V production generally flows downstream from farms to consumers via channels of agents, inter-market traders and retailers (Figure 2).
Agricultural aggregation schemes provide numerous farmer-facing benefits, including reduced transportation costs and improved access to higher-demand urban markets. However, whether aggregation schemes also have positive food security dimensions for consumers dependent on peri-urban and local markets in developing country contexts is currently unknown. OTC trading is, of course, attractive due to cryptoasset prices which can be significantly lower than those on exchanges. What is truly unfortunate here, is that OTC players often return to the exchanges where they implement other manipulation strategies, reaping even higher profits. In order to buy cryptocurrency at a profit, a whale first starts selling it at a price slightly lower than the market average, which triggers a huge sell-off by short-sighted market participants. Thus the whale creates a perfect opportunity to buy high volumes of cryptocurrency at a much lower price.